Retaining walls
Several patterns of cast are suitable for retaining wall construction; depending on application and function a wide range of sizes and formations are available.

Retaining walls to combat land erosion and movement
As forest and plantation land is stripped for the construction of residences and other buildings, or through deforestation, there is a constant threat of land movement in many parts of the world. Aquacast International can offer solutions to help combat this problem. Piling can be achieved at an angle if required, and the resulting walls can be used as and retainers. In certain cases Aquacast International can be used to provide stepped agricultural land to increase area of growth and to ease agricultural work.

High retaining walls
Several factors must be taken into account in the construction of high retaining walls and the best possible solution must be investigated by the site surveyor.

The most obvious problem encountered will be that the horizontal forces acting on the wall will tend to produce a turnover effect. The second problem is how best to maintain the correct pitch of the pilings. Tolerance between the piles must be also decided upon.

As mentioned in the installation procedure, a site survey and ground density analysis must be carried out accurately. Piling engineers will then determine the depth required for piling and pitch tolerance.

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Calculations can be made - based on the height of the construction and the forces exerted upon the construction - to determine the size of the pre-cast units suitable for the application. At the beginning of construction, the foundation units must be made of a greater width and thickness in proportion to the required height of the retaining wall and the maximum pressure applied by the forces acting upon the base.

There are many Consulting Engineers who are authorised by Aquacast International to perform these calculations. To proceed with this particular installation the ground must be made suitable. It may be necessary to apply hard-core stone or gravel, or to use machinery to excavate and level as required, depending upon the basic conditions of the ground.

Having completed the necessary preparations for construction to begin, the foundation course is lowered and positioned as required for the operation. As the slots in the foundation casts are predetermined, piling can commence using the slots and the foundation casts as templates. This will ensure accurate pitching of the piles. Once this has been accomplished, the remaining cast blocks can be assembled by simply lowering the units into position.

To overcome the turnover effect, the construction can be designed to have block support at various points of the wall. Units can be assembled at 90 degree to the original wall position , both forward and backward, giving much extra rigged stabilisation to any horizontal structure as shown on page 5 of the Aquacast Brochure .